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Please read the important information below before continuing to our website.  

By clicking on your client type to enter the website, you are confirming that you have read and understood the important information that is contained below, and you accept the terms of the Privacy and Cookies policy.


This website is published by Lyxor International Asset Management (LIAM), a French asset management company approved by the French Financial Markets Authority (Autorité des Marchés Financiers, 17 place de la Bourse, 75082 Paris Cedex 02) under the UCITS (2009/65/EC) and AIFM (2011/31/EU) directives.

The website is hosted on Microsoft Azure servers.

This website is subject to French and Finnish law.


A professional client for the purposes of the MiFID (2004/39/EC) and the AIFMD (2011/31/EU) as implemented in Finland is one of the following:

-         an entity required to be authorised or regulated to operate in the financial markets. The following list includes all authorised entities carrying out the characteristic activities of the entities mentioned, whether authorised by an EEA State or a third country and whether or not authorised by reference to a directive:

·            an investment firm, a credit institution, a fund management company, an alternative investment fund manager, a depositary;

·            a stock exchange, an options exchange, a clearing entity;

·            a central securities depository;

·            an insurance company, a pension insurance company, a pension fund;

·            an entity that deals exclusively on own account in financial derivatives for the sole purpose of hedging positions on derivatives markets or deals for the account of other members of those markets or makes prices for them and is guaranteed by clearing members of the same markets;

·            a business entity dealing in commodities and/or commodity derivatives on own account;

·            any other institutional investor;



-          a large undertaking, meeting two of the following size requirements according to the financial statements of the last preceding financial period:


·            balance sheet total of at least EUR 20,000,000

·            net turnover of at least EUR 40,000,000

·            own funds of at least EUR 2,000,000


-         the State of Finland, the State Treasury, the province of Åland, foreign national and regional governments as well as foreign public bodies managing public debt;

-         the European Central Bank, the Bank of Finland and similar foreign central banks as well as the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and similar international associations and organisations;

-         institutional investors that, as their main field of activity, invest in financial instruments;

-         other clients that have in writing requested to be treated as a professional client and, after having received written information on the limited protection afforded to professional clients confirmed in writing their understanding of the same, provided that the investment firm has assessed that the client is capable of making independent investment decisions and understands the related risks and, furthermore, that the client meets at least two of the following criteria:

·            the client has carried out transactions, in significant size, on the relevant market at an average frequency of 10 per quarter over the previous four quarters;

·            the size of the client’s financial instrument portfolio exceeds EUR 500,000;

·            the client works or has worked in the financial sector for at least one year in a professional position, which requires knowledge of the transactions or services envisaged.


A professional investor for the purposes of the UCITS (2009/65/EC) as implemented in Finland is one of the following:

-         an entity required to be authorised or regulated to operate in the financial markets, as defined above under ‘professional client’;

-         a large undertaking, meeting the requirements set out above for professional clients

-         the State of Finland, the State Treasury, the province of Åland, foreign national and regional governments as well as foreign public bodies managing public debt;

-         the European Central Bank, the Bank of Finland and similar foreign central banks as well as the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and similar international associations and organisations;

-         institutional investors that, as their main field of activity, invest in financial instruments;

-         other investors that have notified the fund management company, UCITS or its representative in writing that they, on the basis of their expertise and experience in investing activities, are professional investors, and meet at least two of the following criteria:

·            the investor has carried out transactions, in significant size, on the relevant market at an average frequency of 10 per quarter over the previous four quarters;

·            the size of the investor’s financial instrument portfolio exceeds EUR 500,000;

·            the investor works or has worked in the financial sector for at least one year in a professional position, which requires knowledge of the transactions or services envisaged.


The above definitions are only extracts and are as such not exhaustive. For further details please refer to the Finnish Investment Services Act (747/2012) and the Finnish Investment Funds Act (48/1999).


Marketing Restrictions and Implications


Lyxor UCITS compliant Exchange Traded Funds (Lyxor UCITS ETFs) referred to on this website are open ended mutual investment funds (i) established under French law and approved by the Autorité des Marchés Financiers (the French Financial Markets Authority), or (ii) established under Luxembourg law and approved by the Commission de Surveillance du Secteur Financier (the Luxembourg Financial Supervisory Committee). Most, if not all, of the protections provided by the Finnish regulatory system generally and for funds authorised in Finland do not apply to these exchange traded funds (ETFs). In particular, investors should note that holdings in this product will not be covered by the provisions of the Financial Services Compensation Scheme or by the Finnish Investors’ Compensation Fund.


This website is exclusively intended for persons who are not "US persons", as such term is defined in Regulation S or the US Securities Act 1933, as amended, and who are not physically present in the US. This website does not constitute an offer or an invitation to purchase any securities in the United States or in any other jurisdiction in which such offer or invitation is not authorised or to any person to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation. Potential users of this website are requested to inform themselves about and to observe any such restrictions.


Index Replication Process


Lyxor UCITS ETFs follow both physical and synthetic index replication process.


However, most Lyxor UCITS ETFs follow synthetic replication process. This consists of entering into a derivative transaction (a ‘Performance Swap’, as defined below) with a counterparty that provides complete and effective exposure to its benchmark index. Lyxor has adopted this methodology in order to minimise tracking error, optimise transaction costs and reduce operational risks.


A Performance Swap is a contractual agreement which is negotiated over-the-counter (OTC) between two parties: the Lyxor UCITS ETF and its counterparty. From a risk perspective, each Performance Swap ranks equally with other senior unsecured obligations of the counterparty, such as common bonds (i.e., same rights to payments). In the Performance Swap, the counterparty of the Lyxor UCITS ETF commits to pay the Lyxor UCITS ETF a variable return based on a pre-determined benchmark index, instead of a fixed stream of income (as in bonds). At the same time, the counterparty will receive from the Lyxor UCITS ETF the performance and any related revenues generated by the basket's assets (excluding the value of the Performance Swap) held by the Lyxor UCITS ETF. Information provided on individual ETFs includes data on the basket relating to the ETF and the percentage value of the basket represented by each asset. The information is relevant to the closing values on the date given. 


Investment Risks


The Lyxor UCITS ETFs described on this website are not suitable for everyone. Investors' capital is at risk. Investors should not deal in this product unless they understand, having obtained independent professional advice where necessary, its nature, terms and conditions, and the extent of their exposure to risk. The value of the product can go down as well as up and can be subject to volatility due to factors such as price changes in the underlying instrument and interest rates. If a fund is quoted in a different currency to the index, currency risks exist.


Prior to any investment in any Lyxor UCITS ETF, you should make your own appraisal of the risks from a financial, legal and tax perspective, without relying exclusively on the information provided by us. We recommend that you consult your own independent professional advisors (including legal, tax, financial or accounting advisors, as appropriate).


Specific Risks


·         Capital at Risk. ETFs are tracking instruments: Their risk profile is similar to a direct investment in the Benchmark Index. Investors’ capital is fully at risk and investors may not get back the amount originally invested. Investments are not covered by the provisions of the Financial Services Compensation Scheme (“FSCS”), the Finnish Investors’ Compensation Fund or any similar scheme.

·         Counterparty Risk. Investors may be exposed to risks resulting from the use of an OTC Swap with Societe Generale. Physical ETFs may have Counterparty Risk resulting from the use of a Securities Lending Programme.

·         Currency Risk. ETFs may be exposed to currency risk if the ETF or Benchmark Index holdings are denominated in a currency different to that of the Benchmark Index they are tracking. This means that exchange rate fluctuations could have a negative or positive effect on returns.

·         Replication Risk. ETFs are designed to replicate the performance of the Benchmark Index. Unexpected events relating to the constituents of the Benchmark Index may impact the Index provider’s ability to calculate the Benchmark Index, which may affect the ETF’s ability to replicate the Benchmark Index efficiently. This may create Tracking Error in the ETF.

·         Underlying Risk. The Benchmark Index of a Lyxor ETF may be complex and volatile. When investing in commodities, the Benchmark Index is calculated with reference to commodity futures contracts which can expose investors to risks related to the cost of carry and transportation. ETFs exposed to Emerging Markets carry a greater risk of potential loss than investment in Developed Markets as they are exposed to a wide range of unpredictable Emerging Market risks.

·         Liquidity Risk. On-exchange liquidity may be limited as a result of a suspension in the underlying market represented by the Benchmark Index tracked by the ETF; a failure in the systems of one of the relevant stock exchanges, Societe Generale or other Market Maker systems; or an abnormal trading situation or event. 


The securities can be neither offered in nor transferred to the United States.




Any statement in relation to tax, where made, is generic and non-exhaustive and is based on our understanding of the laws and practice in force as of the date of this document and is subject to any changes in law and practice and the interpretation and application thereof, which changes could be made with retroactive effect. Any such statement must not be construed as tax advice and must not be relied upon. The tax treatment of investments will, inter alia, depend on an individual’s circumstances. Investors must consult with an appropriate professional tax adviser to ascertain for themselves the taxation consequences of acquiring, holding and/or disposing of any investments mentioned on this website. 

Further information on the risk factors are available in the [Risk Warning – link to risk page] section of the website.


Any fund prospectus and supplements are available at Information given about the past performance of the funds is no guarantee of future performance. No investment decision should be taken without reading the fund prospectus and any fund supplement of the fund concerned.


Although the content of the website is based upon information that LIAM consider reliable or comes from sources that LIAM consider reliable, LIAM have not verified such information. Lyxor makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy, completeness or adequacy of any information.  Any reproduction, disclosure or dissemination of the materials available on the website is prohibited.



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Busting the five most common myths about ETFs

With active managers gearing up for their annual “this’ll be our year” outputs, we thought it time to address the persistent speculation about the way ETFs influence markets and performance. Our latest ETF Research paper tackles the five most frequent concerns: 

1. ETFs are getting too big

In fact, the ETF footprint is still fairly small. In the largest market, the US, ETFs represent 7.6% of the equity market; in Europe it is even less, at 4.4%. As such, they can’t exert any real influence on the asset markets in which they operate.  

Could this change? There’s little evidence of “creep” so far. Between 2000 and 2016, ETFs’ aggregate ownership share of three popular US equity indices— the S&P 500, the Russell 1000 and the Russell 2000— only grew by around 0.4% per year. 

In the secondary market, ETFs based on the Euro STOXX 50 represent 2% of the cumulative average daily volume traded. Within bonds, the numbers are similarly inconsequential. 


2. ETFs increase correlations and harm diversification 

Our work with the ETF Research Academy to better understand the impact of ETFs on their underlying markets shows ETFs influence the aggregate levels of risk in the market, but don’t necessarily increase it.

ETFs don’t automatically cause higher volatility nor do they necessarily increase the tendency of stock prices to move in sync. A parallel can be drawn between the growth of ETFs and passive management and the decrease of return dispersion in the underlying markets over the last 20 years, but we don’t subscribe the view that one definitely caused the other.

Dispersion can be influenced by multiple factors other than index-related instruments, among them global volatility, futures and derivatives, or systematic strategies and algorithmic trading.


3. ETFs add to volatility 

How ETF traders affect the underlying index is a familiar debate. The effect ETF “noise traders” – less well informed investors – have on index volatility is relatively short-lived. Trading by more informed investors has a greater impact on financial markets, and plays a role in price discovery over the long run.

The percentage of bond issues held by ETFs is small, and ETF ownership of bonds tends to be associated with more liquid and less volatile underlying bonds. Research suggests ETF ownership may actually reduce the price volatility of constituents in the corporate bond market.


4. ETFs make markets less efficient 

New ETFs can help make markets more efficient if they are built the right way – and adding new ETFs to those already in issue can reduce systemic risk. Therefore, the overall level of risk of the market does not depend on the number of ETFs in existence or the size of their assets under management.

That said, ETF issuers can, via their design choices (index weight, methodologies, primary market liquidity), influence the overall riskiness of the market and their impact on market efficiency. Although market-cap indices increase the amount of macro-based information included in financial assets, ETFs on non-market cap weighted indices include a significant micro-based information part in the investment decision process and therefore contribute to pricing efficiency.

Assets in these kinds of ETFs are growing faster than the market overall. And we expect them to be one of the main drivers of ETF market growth in the future.  


5. ETFs increase market susceptibility to major drawdowns

Our research into the primary and secondary markets in Europe suggests assets are being traded less, so ETFs are being held for longer.  If they are, it reduces their potential impact on financial markets.

We know investors are concerned by this possible impact, especially when markets are under stress. Such periods of stress can be found (albeit infrequently) in the US, but are, so far at least, impossible to find in Europe. The key question then is will that change any time soon?

In our view, the answer is no - the markets are still too different. The ETF market in Europe may have doubled in the last four years, but it’s still four times smaller than in the US. There are also more checks and balances in place. There are other differences too, including the users of ETFs. In the US, usage is much more widespread among retail and hedge fund investors as well as institutions; we don’t see that in Europe yet.

Providers in Europe have to publish the value of the fund on a daily basis and also publish an indication of the NAV throughout the day (the iNAV). Meanwhile, exchanges such as Euronext also have measures in place to prevent trading from drifting too far from fair value. Some providers then add specific risk rules that go even further to try to limit any ETF impact. This is something investors should be aware of when making their selections.

Lyxor, for example, won’t allow any of its ETFs to be more than 2% of the free market float of the underlying pieces. And the volume of shares traded must not be more than 30% of the average daily trade volume of the underlying parts.


Read more

For a more comprehensive review of these five key questions, read our special report from our

   Head of ETF Research,

   Marlene Hassine Konqui 


Risk Warning 


Fund and charge data: Lyxor ETF, correct as at 17 November 2017.

This document is for the exclusive use of investors acting on their own account and categorized either as “Eligible Counterparties” or “Professional Clients” within the meaning of Markets in Financial Instruments Directive 2004/39/EC. These products comply with the UCITS Directive (2009/65/EC). Société Générale and Lyxor International Asset Management (LIAM) recommend that investors read carefully the “investment risks” section of the product’s documentation (prospectus and KIID). The prospectus and KIID are available free of charge on, and upon request to

The products mentioned are the object of market-making contracts, the purpose of which is to ensure the liquidity of the products on the London Stock Exchange, assuming normal market conditions and normally functioning computer systems. Units of a specific UCITS ETF managed by an asset manager and purchased on the secondary market cannot usually be sold directly back to the asset manager itself. Investors must buy and sell units on a secondary market with the assistance of an intermediary (e.g. a stockbroker) and may incur fees for doing so. In addition, investors may pay more than the current net asset value when buying units and may receive less than the current net asset value when selling them. Updated composition of the product’s investment portfolio is available on In addition, the indicative net asset value is published on the Reuters and Bloomberg pages of the product, and might also be mentioned on the websites of the stock exchanges where the product is listed.

Prior to investing in the product, investors should seek independent financial, tax, accounting and legal advice. It is each investor’s responsibility to ascertain that it is authorised to subscribe, or invest into this product. This document is of a commercial nature and not of a regulatory nature. This material is of a commercial nature and not a regulatory nature. This document does not constitute an offer, or an invitation to make an offer, from Société Générale, Lyxor Asset Management (together with its affiliates, Lyxor AM) or any of their respective subsidiaries to purchase or sell the product referred to herein.

Lyxor International Asset Management (LIAM), société par actions simplifiée having its registered office at Tours Société Générale, 17 cours Valmy, 92800 Puteaux (France), 418 862 215 RCS Nanterre, is authorized and regulated by the Autorité des Marchés Financiers (AMF) under the UCITS Directive (2009/65/EU) and the AIFM Directive (2011/31/EU). LIAM is represented in the UK by Lyxor Asset Management UK LLP, which is authorized and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority in the UK under Registration Number 435658. Société Générale is a French credit institution (bank) authorised by the Autorité de contrôle prudentiel et de résolution (the French Prudential Control Authority).

Research disclaimer 

Lyxor International Asset Management (“LIAM”) or its employees may have or maintain business relationships with companies covered in its research reports. As a result, investors should be aware that LIAM and its employees may have a conflict of interest that could affect the objectivity of this report. Investors should consider this report as only a single factor in making their investment decision. Please see appendix at the end of this report for the analyst(s) certification(s), important disclosures and disclaimers. Alternatively, visit our global research disclosure website

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST This research contains the views, opinions and recommendations of Lyxor International Asset Management (“LIAM”) Cross Asset and ETF research analysts and/or strategists. To the extent that this research contains trade ideas based on macro views of economic market conditions or relative value, it may differ from the fundamental Cross Asset and ETF Research opinions and recommendations contained in Cross Asset and ETF Research sector or company research reports and from the views and opinions of other departments of LIAM and its affiliates. Lyxor Cross Asset and ETF research analysts and/or strategists routinely consult with LIAM sales and portfolio management personnel regarding market information including, but not limited to, pricing, spread levels and trading activity of ETFs tracking equity, fixed income and commodity indices. Trading desks may trade, or have traded, as principal on the basis of the research analyst(s) views and reports. Lyxor has mandatory research policies and procedures that are reasonably designed to (i) ensure that purported facts in research reports are based on reliable information and (ii) to prevent improper selective or tiered dissemination of research reports. In addition, research analysts receive compensation based, in part, on the quality and accuracy of their analysis, client feedback, competitive factors and LIAM’s total revenues including revenues from management fees and investment advisory fees and distribution fees.